American Presidency Summer 2022 Short Paper Assignment #2 Write a 4-5 page paper (suggested length) answering one of the following questions. Your response should make careful use of the relevant readings and provide an opening thesis statement indicating your main argument. Papers should be typed, double-spaced, with 12-point font and 1” margins. All sources must be cited (parenthetical citations and footnotes are both acceptable options, but please include page numbers in your citations). Grades will reflect the quality of your analysis, effective use of sources, and overall presentation and organization. Papers are due by the end of the day on August 12 (uploaded to Canvas). Questions (Pick One) 1. Compare Skowronek with either Neustadt or with the theory of the modern presidency outlined by Pika, Maltese & Rudalevige and also discussed by Grover (see his discussion of Rossiter). Can Skowronek’s idea of “political time” be usefully combined with either of these arguments, or does it necessarily challenge them? In answering this question, be sure to also indicate the key insights of each perspective. Please Note: In all cases, you should feel free to draw on specific examples from any of the readings to support your analysis. In other words, if you find it helpful to talk about Franklin Roosevelt, or Kennedy, or a specific policy detail from Pika et al. alongside your discussion of the ‘theories,’ then please do so. My previous writing looks like this, just so you know my level of writing. I was super busy and it is not good but you get the idea. The Imperial Presidency and The Presidential Power and Modern Presidency The Imperial Presidency and the Presidential power and modern Presidency are discussed in the two articles. The former is based on uncontrolled power of the president, while negotiation and persuasion are used by presidents in the latter to accomplish their goals. Presidents become imperial when the constitutional balance favors their power and undermines their accountability. Since WW2, the imperial presidency tends to be prompted by international crises, according to Schlesinger and shrinks during peace. He believes the imperial president is a threat to the constitution because “the rise of the imperial presidency ran against the original intent of the framers of the constitution” (p.47) Additionally, Schlesinger argues that modern presidents’ powers are uncontrolled, and that foreign policy is at the heart of the threat to the constitution because “in domestic policy, the legislative and judiciary branches of government don’t hesitate to challenge the President.” on the other hand, “when it comes to foreign affairs, they lack confidence and are likely to be intimidated by executive authority” (p.45) Moreover, despite the president’s unilateral power on national security and the fact that the president is empowered to act without Congress, Schlesinger undermines the power of the executive branch by stating, “the presidency was only given the power of receiving and appointing ambassadors, and by implication, of serving as the channel of communications to foreign states.” (p.48). Nevertheless, article two grants broad executive powers to the president which makes it easy for the executive branch to be the prime agent dealing with foreign affairs. Due to this, both modern and early presidents used it to expand their powers without congressional appropriation. In contrast, Though the constitution gives the president a great deal of power, for instance during national security, and, as Neustadt points out, the state creates the capacity for the president to act far more easily without Congress, yet he believes that the president must have persuasive skills in order for things to be accomplished. As a result of the constitution that is complicated and created a government that is “separated powers and rather, it created a government of separated institutions sharing powers” 212. The congress and the executive share the authority, so the president cannot fire them even if they are an obstacle, so he must persuade them in any way he can. That is why Truman once said, “I sit here all day trying to persuade people to do the things they ought to have sense enough to do without my persuading them… that is all the powers of the president amount to” (p. 212). Effective methods of success for a president would be to use formal constitution powers, which are once again shared powers. The logic of argument and this method doesn’t always win his favor, command which doesn’t work all the time “Do this! Do that!” And nothing will happen” and persuasion. Neustadt focuses on the last one. “The connection between persuasion and bargaining is central to Neustadt’s thesis” because “for Neustadt the essence of presidential power is the power to persuade” (Grover, p.33). He believes that for a president to be successful he has to have persuasive skills and his. So that way they act the way the president wants. In this way he thinks that the president has enough power to do so because he said, “the President’s advantages are greater than mere listings of his powers might suggest” (p.214) he also stated “the president’s authority and status give him great advantages in dealing with men he would persuade.