Healthcare Policy and Informatics

This week we will focus on Policy and Politics in Government and the intersection of health policy technology and informatics. Health Informatics is the “interdisciplinary study of the design, development, adoption, and application of IT-based tinnovations in healthcare services delivery, management, and planning” (U.S. National Library of Medicine, 2019, para 1). We discussed this briefly last week with issues related to workplace quality and safety issues. First, we will discuss government. Chapters 37 and 38 in the course textbook (Mason et al., 2021) discuss some very relevant issues in government and how the government works on national, state, and local levels to influence the policy process. Healthcare reform is occurring on all levels, especially as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic.
The United States has three branches of government: the executive, the legislative, and the judicial. The executive branch consists of the president, vice-president, and the cabinet members from the State, Defense, Interior, Transportation, and Education departments. The executive branch ensures that laws are carried out and facilitate the day-to-day responsibilities of the federal government. These include such things as collecting taxes, safeguarding the country, and representing the United States political and economic interests around the world. The legislative branch consists of the Senate and the House of Representatives, and has the responsibility of passing the nations laws and allocating funds to run the federal government and provide assistance to the 50 U. S. states. The judicial branch of the government consists of the United States Supreme Court and the lower federal courts. The primary function of these courts is to hear cases that challenge legislation or require interpretation of that legislation. Read the following article: The Basic Structure and Functions of the United States Federal Government.
The legislative process is a more complex series of procedures of how to pass laws. Chapter 39 in our textbook addresses the legislative process and regulatory process (Schumann, 2021). Introducing a bill and influencing the introduction of a bill are vital to the successful passing of that bill. Committee action, procedures, hearings and floor action are important components of this process and read in more detail: The Legislative Process.
Chapter 40 explains lobbying and the lobbying process and the influence of lobbyists on policymakers (Inouye, 2021). Lobbying can have a negative connotation, however, it is part of the process. The National Conference of State Legislatures (NCSL) defines lobbying and lobbyists. Here is a list of how each state defines them: Chart of 50 States Define Lobbying
The following video, The New System: Money and Influence in American Politics,  describes the influence money and lobbying have on American politics. 

 
Implementation of the Affordable Care Act has lead to many innovative approaches to health care delivery. A number of federal policy initiatives continue to transform healthcare through the use of health information technology. Mason et al. (2021) in chapters 15 pp. 125-157 discuss Telehealth and Health Information Technology (HIT) and chapter 65 discusses pros and cons of HIT. Nickitas et al. (2020) describe the federal origins and influence in the development of health information technology, rules to enhace protections of HIPAA violations, EMRs or EHRs, security issues, technology security breeches, protective mechanisms, and mandating standards of protection of private health information. 
Rao Bhavaraju’s commentary (2018) presents a number of aspects of the digital revolution with a review of EHRs with their acceptance and healthcare professionnals’ readiness to use, new developments, role of healthcare providers, and ethics associated with use. Banova (2019) discusses the pros and cons of various technologies used in healthcare.
In the video below, Next Generation of Health Care Technology, Johns Hopkins Medical Center staff discuss next generation health care technology and its use in improving health care and making the jobs of healthcare staff easier. In our week 4 DQ, you will be discussing a technology used for a healthcare issue.
 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PAuaZ-nCm3M

References
Banova, B. (2019, June 2). The impact of technology in healthcare. American Institute of Medical Sciences and Education. https://www.aimseducation.edu/blog/the-impact-of-technology-on-healthcare/
Inouye, L. M. (2021). Lobbying policymakers: Individual and collective strategies. In D. J. Mason, E. Dickson, M. R. McLemore, & G. A. Perez (Eds.), Policy & politics in nursing and health care (8th ed., pp. 343-348). Elsevier.
Mason, D. J., Dickson, E., McLemore, M. R., & Perez, G. A. (Eds). (2021).  Policy & politics in nursing and health care (8th ed.) Elsevier.
Nikitas, D. M., Middaugh, D. J., & Feeg, V. D. (2020). Policy and politics for nurses and other healthcare professionals (3rd ed.). Jones and Bartlett.
Rao Bhavaraju, S. (2018). From subconscious to conscious, to artificial intelligence: A focus on electronic health records. Neurological Society of India, 66(5), 1270-1275. Retrieved from www.neurologyindia.com.
Also available through the Library‘s  Academic Onefile
Schumann, M. J. (2021). An overview of regulatory and legislative processes. In  D. J. Mason, E. Dickson, M. R. McLemore, & G. A. Perez (Eds.), Policy & politics in nursing and health care (8th ed., pp. 333-342). Elsevier.Week 4 Discussion: The Use of Informatics and Healthcare Policy
We have discussed a number of healthcare issues in the first three weeks of class. There have been a number of federal initiatives and policy changes created to improve the delivery of healthcare services with the goal to improve quality, safety, cost effectiveness, and efficiency of care that is provided. Select a health condition or disease process which can be impacted by informatics. 
There are many types of informatics that can be used to assess, diagnose, and manage health conditions or diseases. Some examples of informatics are EMRs, Medication Dispensing Systems, Event Management Systems, Reporting Systems, Telemedicine, Patient Portals, Texting and Emailing Medical Orders and Patient Information, Smart Phones for Healthcare Delivery, Mobile Apps, Tablets used by Patients, Robots, Artificial Intelligence, etc. 

Initial Post (Due Wednesday, 2359)

Briefly introduce the health condition or disease process.
Discuss how health informatics can impact the care and outcomes of this issue based upon evidence.
Identify two pros and two cons to the use of health informatics to address this health condition or disease process.
Describe a health policy that relates to the use of informatics for this health condition or disease process.
What is the impact of informatics and health policy on the potential resolution of this health condition or disease process?
Include at least one reference/resource from your course materials and at least one additional source besides your texts and readings that is a peer reviewed scholarly article within the last 5 years.
use for one reference:
Mason, D. J., Dickson, E., McLemore, M. R., & Perez, G. A. (Eds). (2021).  Policy & politics in nursing and health care (8th ed.) Elsevier.