outline

essay title and numbered pages.  
-5 double-spaced pages, 1-inch margins all around
-12 point Times New Roman font;
-do not use any bold, italics, or other deviation unless the Chicago Manual of Style or the MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers in the library requires it.

CITATIONS, QUOTATIONS, AND REFERENCES:   
1- refer to the Chicago Manual of Style or MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers on Blackboard 
2- all papers must contain a bibliography or reference page citing all works used in the paper.  
3- remember that in this type of short essay you should use quotations sparingly
-the key here is your analysis of the authors ideas; the fewer quotes the better.

WARNINGS:
-use only the written materials and articles provided in class
-be extremely careful to avoid research consisting of cutting & pasting from online
-this is plagiarism and youll fail  
-dont cut & paste other peoples work and then go back and change the words/order
-you are still stealing other peoples work

FORMAT:  
1-your essay should pose a question and then answer it
-first page should explain your issue & the question youre answering
     -indicate your sources, authors, and general conclusions
   -this first page should thus be like an articles abstract
2- the next approximate page should place your issue in context
-why is it important? 
-what are the main points necessary to understand the issue?
-what historical background is critical for understanding this issue
-remember, this is not a history paper
3- the next 2 pages should analyze the views of the authors
     -what are their main differences and similarities?
      -provide brief, concise analysis of their arguments
-explain their dependent & independent variables, methodology & conclusions
4- last 2 pages are your analysis/opinion of which author you agree/disagree with
-why do you conclude that are they right/wrong/misguided/brilliant? 
-finally, what conclusions do you draw?
5- for a top grade, incorporate the models, ideas, theories, and concepts from the class
-this is a superb way of demonstrating that you understand the readings & lectures
-the top essays are those that link the abstract/theoretical with actual case studies
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Essay Questionspick one only
-if you answered any of these questions in a makeup exam, you cant answer them again for your essay
-use only the written materials and articles provided in class
-dont share your essay with another studentyoull both fail for cheating

1. According to the class materials, define a state and explain the different types of states that exist.
-what accounts for these variations?
-discuss dependent & independent variables, theories & methodology

2.  According to the class materials, what is democracy and how does it emerge and survive?  
-discuss dependent & independent variables, theories & methodology

3.  According to the class materials, how do states develop economically?  
-discuss modernization and neomarxist theories.
-discuss dependent & independent variables, theories & methodology

4.  According to the class materials, are Islam and democracy compatible?
-define each concept 
-discuss authors dependent & independent variables, theories & methodology

5.  According to the class materials, how do institutions matter?
-explain differences between presidentialism and parliamentarism.
-discuss authors dependent & independent variables, theories & methodology

6.  According to the class materials, compare and contrast at least 3 different explanations for revolution.
-discuss authors dependent & independent variables, theories & methodology

— when you pick the topic i will send you the slides from his class to use as a reference for citations. —