In a single case, many different stages of the data lifecycle can involve ethically significant decisions and actions. Additionally, a wide range of actors (people, organizations, other entities) are typically involved in taking these decisions or actions.

Taking a single case where data subjects were exposed to harm, your task will be to map where key decisions or actions were made (or not made) to stages of the data lifecycle, and to key actors. Choose one of the cases listed below.

You will need to do background research to find out more details about the case. To do so, you can draw on sources such as news media reports, official reports, and articles from the academic literature.

You should identify four actors (individuals or organizations) who acted, or failed to act, in ways that contributed to the situation in which data subjects were exposed to harm.

You should include:

Introduction of the situation, briefly explaining what the situation was, who was exposed to harm, and what harm they were exposed to (maximum 100 words) (5 points);

For each actor, you should identify the key actions they took that contributed to the situation. You should identify at what stage(s) of the data lifecycle these actions occurred. Write a maximum of 150 words per actor (15 points);

Discussion of how responsibility should be distributed across the actors identified (write a maximum of 200 words). Who or what should be held responsible for what happened? To what extent should they be held responsible? For each actor, discuss whether it is fair to take action against them for what happened (7 points);

List of references and in-text citations. Please use one of the following common, standard referencing formats: Harvard Citation Style, American Psychological Association (APA), or the IEEE reference format (3 points).

When you present the ideas of others, make it clear by including a citation of their work. Present the ideas of others in your own words, rather than using their words. If you want to use their words, limit to one or two sentences, and use quotation marks. It is not acceptable to copy & paste other peoples words into your own paper without proper attribution.

Choose one of the following five cases (link to a media article about the case to get you started):

The Equifax hacks of 2017 ( (Links to an external site.))

Knight Capital and its financial loss in 2012 ( (Links to an external site.))

Ashley Madison data breach of 2015 ( (Links to an external site.))

Misuse of Uber God View to track celebrities ( (Links to an external site.))

Racial bias in Northpointes recidivism prediction algorithm ( (Links to an external site.)) (Links to an external site.)