pickup and delivery services using drone and truck

Online retailers and food delivery platforms are exploring last-mile packages and food delivery using drones to reduce delivery time and to improve customer experience. We investigate a novel and futuristic problem, the lzhcomment{one-to-one pickup and delivery problem with multi-trucks and multi-visit drone (OPDP-MTMV)}. This problem involves multiple trucks that are each equipped with a single drone for pickup and delivery services. The drones are capable of carrying multiple packages per drone trip. Pickup and delivery requests can be served by either a truck or a drone, subject to the one-to-one precedence constraints of the requests, the capacity constraints of the truck and the drone, and the endurance constraints of the drones. The energy consumption of the drone is based on the flight time and the varying payload along the multi-visit drone trip. The objective is to minimize the sum of the fixed cost and the variable duration cost. We formulate this problem into a mathematical model and propose an iterated local search (ILS) algorithm based on the distinct features of the problem. Finally, we conduct comprehensive computational experiments using test instances of various sizes to analyze the characteristics of the solution, the applicability of the algorithm, as well as the impact of different drone configurations.