Residential ( housing ) segregation in America

I need an introduction with Thesis Statement, Body paragraphs with citations, and Conclusion.Also need to have transition sentences . Its about house segregation and African Americans. We doing that essay  based on book Color of Law, so mostly take info from here. Use easy language and dont do it super perfect, like a normal teenager will do.

I dont need the  paper looks  like an introduction and description of history about housing segregation. It’s need to be a  research paper that incorporates your own ideas. Need state the main idea and more clearly so it would be easier for readers to follow.

Thats an example how essay should looks like, dont do exactly yhe same! Its one of the student, but we have kinda the same topic so.
Housing segregation is the largest contributor to the health inequalities in the United States of America in 2021. Todays health inequalities were a byproduct of housing segregation. Housing segregation was initiated by individuals and various government branches including federal, state, and local governments. Governments implemented various racial based segregation policies and practices, including public housing, the New Deal, redlining, and the Underwriting Manual of the Federal Housing Administration (FHA).  These policies and practices have impeded people of color from obtaining a higher living standard, leading to healthcare disparities in the United States. 
According to The Color of Law, public housing was initially constructed for those who could afford decent housing but couldnt find it because none was available.. During the time, public housing was reserved only for white residents, because the officials considered that: Negroes do not fit into the program (public housing). This decision has resulted in forcing black residents into overcrowded slums, leading to poor health outcomes. 
Many studies and institutions such as World Health Organization, National Center for Biotechnology Information, and Ministry of Social Development (MSD) in New Zealand has identified that crowding can lead to various health problems such as illness caused by stress and increased risk of spreading infectious diseases such as respiratory diseases. Furthermore, there have been multiple studies claiming that crowding could lead to students lower academic performances, creating intergenerational transmission of social inequalities.
After World War 2, some of the public housing program became available to black-individuals as well. Nevertheless, most public housing was designed for either white or black residents, having no integrated programs. Furthermore, the utilities provided in white public housing were more facilized than their counterparts. This may explain why the African American population recorded worse health performances compared to white residents.  
Later, the federal government initiated establishment of segregation within an integrated community. The Color of Law stated that: 
The PWA (Public Works Administration) designated many integrated neighborhoods as either white or black and then used public housing to make the designation come true- by installing whites-only projects in mixed neighborhoods it deemed white and blacks-only projects in those it deemed colored. (21) 
This practice has resulted in creating racial segregation within an integrated community as well as establishment of health disparities. By creating segregation within in the community, each community will likely be receiving a different level of healthcare. As addressed in the color of law, often the public housing for whites have received a better service compared to their counterpart. 

Another practice the government has implemented was redlining. Redlining is a practice of denying services to specific communities/individuals, often racially associated. Redlining was often conducted in order to separate the white communities and communities of colors. The federal government published maps of major cities including Boston, Chicago, Los Angeles, Detroit and so on. The maps were highlighted in 4 different colors: green, blue, yellow and red. Each color indicates the rank of each community, often based on race; Green for Best, Blue for still desirable, Yellow for definitely declining and Red for Hazardous. The lenders decision of providing mortgage or not was based on the individuals inhabitant area and where they are planning to move to, and not the credibility and income of the individual. This has established a financial barrier for the black residents, as the lenders refuse to provide mortgage to individuals from red area. (Then the lenders will decide whether to provide a mortgage to an individual based on the area they inhabit and not the credibility or income of the individual. This practice has created a financial barrier for the black individual as they are not able to get a mortgage.) Furthermore, Red Lining has led to health disparities among the communities. 
According to the data released by the National Public Radio (NPR), the life expectancy in Tract D5 was 21.2 percent higher than Tract A3 in the 1930s. The data explains that one of the reasons for poorer health outcomes in communities of color was the lack of access to grocery stores and green spaces. Resulting in less access to healthy food and fewer locations for exercises. Furthermore, Dr. Lisa Cooper, a health disparities researcher at the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, claims that: people often think of health as the result of individual choices. But she says the redlining study’s findings show how health is also a result of a lack of choices baked into the very fabric of American cities by racist policies made long ago..

In 1968 by the publication of the Fair Housing Act, the practice of redlining was prohibited in the U.S. The governments and white residents still had ways to conserve their neighborhoods racial state by various methods. One of them was prohibiting the construction of apartments in single-family districts. This practice allowed white residents to financially prevent black residents from moving into their neighborhoods, as apartments were often more expensive than apartments.  
In 1926, the Supreme Court considered the legality of the practice, and justice George Sutherland, speaking for the court, explained that apartment housing is usually constructed in order to take advantage of the space and attractive surroundings, and construction/existence of apartment houses in single-family districts come very near to being nuisances..  After this supreme court ruling, many white communities adopted this practice of exclusionary zoning ordinance as a way to prevent low-income residents (African Americans) from residing in their neighborhoods. 

This result has depicted how deeply segregation is embedded in our communities. As claimed in The Color of Law: In most cities court orders and legal settlement were also not sufficient to undo the segregation that federal, state and government had created and abetted.(36). In addition, as stated by David R. Williams Professor of Public Health at the Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health: Over 70% of all Americans have anti-black bias and the number for physicians are also over 70%.. These two results have shown how deeply segregation and racism is embedded in the U.S. society, and how it is creating bias/segregation/racism in other industries such as healthcare industry.  

In 1936, the Federal Housing Administration published the Underwriting Manual of the Federal Housing Administration (FHA). Underwriting Manual of the FHA was an extremely dense document consisting of 1936 paragraphs, presenting instructions and regulations that to be followed by the Underwriting Department in insuring Offices. As well describing the mortgage eligibility based on the risk rating.  

The document in multiple pages emphasized the need for segregation between people of color and white individuals. For example, in paragraph 951, the document addressed the need for having white students attend predominantly white schools. In paragraph 233 and 937, the document emphasizes the need to investigate surrounding locations in order to predict the potential of being invaded by incompatible racial groups. These information have shown how the government was involved in the creation of racial segregation in housing as well as education system. As often schools serving students of color received less and faced more negative conditions such as overcrowding and inadequate supplies than schools serving white students(school of education program), resulting in educational disparities.
The manual has also suggested highways to be a good method of segregating communities. The current U.S. highway system has successfully integrated the suggestions and created segregation within the communities by playing a role as a physical barrier between the colored and white communities. National Public Radio addressed that highway have made it difficult for people of color to access the opportunities (as well as healthcare systems creating healthcare disparities).  
One of the cases where segregation by highway is shown is interstate 20 in Atlanta. As shown in the map below, the west side of the intersection of I-20, I-75 and I-85 is predominantly black. On the other hand, the east side, especially the north-east side is predominately white. This has clearly portrayed how the highway is segregating the communities. In fact, in 1950, mayor Bill Hartsfield himself addressed the intersection as the boundary between the white and Negro communities.. Interstate 20 is one of the many highways that are dividing the communities based on race and is an indisputable evidence showing government involvement in segregation. 

All practices and policies stated above have brought a tremendous effect on numerous services, especially the healthcare system. As stated in the Color of Law, the result of public housing, was the increase in population density that turned the African American neighborhoods into slums.. The WHO and various research institutions have identified that the overcrowding of housing contributes to health problems such as stress, risk of infectious diseases, mental health and so on. In addition to it, a number of studies have also found that the overcrowding of housing leads to childrens lower academic performance, which may contribute to intergenerational transmission of social inequalities. This has clearly depicted how public housing has contributed to health disparities and intergenerational social inequalities in the United States. 
 As addressed in The Color of Law, A result of the government program, therefore, was the increase in population density that turned the African American neighborhoods into slums. (22) This result has shown how the government policies have created ghettos in the United States.  

WHO Housing and Health Guideline, has pointed out that: Crowding is considered to be stressful to health and well-being across different cultures and aspects of life in low-, middle- and high-income countries.. There have also been numbers of studies such as one conducted in the U.S. that has addressed that crowding contributes to health problems such as stress, infectious diseases, and mental health as well as children’s lower academic performances. The report addressed that these environments may contribute to intergenerational transmission of social inequalities. This has depicted how social and health inequalities are embedded in each household and how the effect of housing segregation has lasted. seriousness(perilousness)The gravity of housing segregation. The U.S. government is the one that has induced health inequalities and should be responsible for rectifying the results it has caused.