What is community health and public health?

There are 21 discussions and for each one the requirements are the same.Instructions:Answers must:Be 100 words or moreUse the stand English grammar and spellingReferences are cited (if necessary)Discussion 1: Case StudyChapter 1: The Journey Begins: Introduction to CommunityHealth NursingThe nursing student is attending a 1-day orientation at the agency to learn aboutcommunity health nursing. The nurse is reviewing that community health nursinghas opportunities and challenges to keep the nurse interested and involved in acommunity-focused career for a lifetime. The presenter has provided the studentswith a list of questions about what was learned during the day. The student nurseseach have to prepare a 3-minute presentation for the question assigned to them1. What is community health and public health?2. What is meant by the concept of community?3. What are the differences among the three levels of prevention?4. What are the eight characteristics of community health nursing?
Discussion 2: Case StudyChapter 14Theoretical Basis of Community/Public Health NursingPublic health nursing is a community-oriented, population-focused nursing specialtythat is based on interpersonal relationships. The unit of care is the community orpopulation rather than the individual, and the goal is to promote healthycommunities. The community health nurse has been assigned to count andinterview homeless people sleeping in the local park to help in identifying programsto provide food, clothing, shelter, health care, and job training for the population.The community health nurse has to consider the eight principles of public healthnursing in community health nursing practice when completing the assignment1. There are essential characteristics of nursing service when a community isthe client. Describe community-oriented, population-focused care, andrelationship-based care. What type of care is been completed by thecommunity health nurse who has been assigned to count and interviewhomeless people sleeping in the local park to help in identifying programs toprovide food, clothing, shelter, health care, and job training for thepopulation?2. The goals of public health nursing, to promote and protect the health ofcommunities, are facilitated by adhering to eight principles identified by theAmerican Nurses Association (2007) for public health nursing practice. Thecommunity health nurse has to consider the eight principles of public healthnursing in community health nursing practice when completing theassignment with homeless individuals. What are the eight principles?3. There are numerous models of nursing practice that can be utilized incommunity health nursing practice. Theories and models ofcommunity/public health nursing practice aid the nurse in understanding therationale behind community-oriented care. What are five of these models ofnursing practice with a brief summary of the model?
Discussion 3: Case StudyChapter 3Setting the Stage for Community Health NursingAt the community health care agency, the assigned nurse reviews with the assignedstudent the conceptual foundations and core functions of community health practicethat are integrated into the various roles and settings of community health nursing.After working at the agency for the day, the student has to prepare an oral reportto present to the class the next day.1. What are the three core public health functions that are basic to communityhealth nursing?2. There are seven different roles of the community health nurse. What are theseven different roles of the community health nurse?3. The role of manager is a critical role for the community health nurse. What isinvolved in the role of manager within the framework of public health nursingfunctions?4. There are seven settings in which community health nurses practice. Whatare the seven settings and provide a brief description of the settings in whichcommunity health nurses practice?
Discussion 4: Case StudyChapter 4Evidence-Based Practice and Ethics in Community HealthNursingThe student nurse starts the day with the community health nurse with a discussionabout the implementation of evidence-based practice. The nurse reviews with thestudent the importance of including appropriate research and evidence-basedpractice principles each day during the daily visits. The community health nurseemphasizes the importance of looking at one’s own values since the student nursewill encounter various individuals in the community health setting. The communityhealth nurse asks the student nurse to review the key human values that influencea client’s health.1. The community health nurse asks the student nurse to explain what isinvolved in evidence-based practice. What are the necessary steps in theprocess of evidence-based practice that the nurse should include in thediscussion with the community health nurse?2. What does implementation of evidence-based practice enable the communityhealth nurse to do in the community?3. Research has what significant impact on community health and nursingpractice?4. Values and ethical principles strongly influence community health nursingpractice and ethical decision-making. What function do values hold in clinicalpractice in the community health setting?5. What three human values influence client health that the community healthnurse must consider?
Discussion 5: Case StudyChapter 18Theoretical Basis for Promoting Family HealthThe family as the unit of service has received increasing emphasis in nursing overthe years. Today, family nursing has an important place in nursing practice,particularly in community health nursing. The community health nurse is reviewingwith the student nurses the key concepts about the theoretical basis for familyhealth. The students are being asked questions about family characteristics and thestages of the family life cycle.1. Families share universal characteristics with every other family. Thesecharacteristics provide an important key to understanding each family’suniqueness. What are five of the most important family characteristics thatcommunity health nurses must recognize and consider in their practice?2. The community health nurse is sitting in a living room talking with a youngmother about her new infant. The community nurse finds it is difficult to keepin mind that all the other family members are present by way of theirinfluence. Systems theory offers some insights about how families operate associal systems. Knowing the attributes of living systems or open systems canhelp strengthen understanding of family structure and function. What are fiveattributes of open systems that help explain how families function?3. The community health nurse is sitting in a living room talking with a youngmother about her new infant. There are two broad stages in the family lifecycle. What are the two broad stages in the family life cycle and what stageis this young mother with a new infant?4. In US society, certain social institutions help perform some aspects oftraditional family functions. What are the six functions that are typical ofAmerican families today and are essential for the maintenance and promotionof family health?
Discussion 6: Case StudyChapter 7Epidemiology in Community Health CareThe community health nurse is reviewing several epidemiologic research studieswith student nurses that are beginning a 6-month community health rotation.Epidemiology offers community health nurses a specific methodology for assessingthe health of aggregates. The nurse has requested that the student participate in asemester long epidemiologic research study1. Why is it important that community health nurses review epidemiologicresearch?2. What are the seven steps that student nurses must consider whenparticipating with the community health nurse in the epidemiologic researchstudy?3. The goals of epidemiologic investigation are to identify the causalmechanisms of health and illness states and to develop measures forpreventing illness and promoting health. Epidemiologists employ aninvestigative process that involves a sequence of three approaches that buildon one another. What are the three investigate approaches?4. The community health nurse has been requested to figure out the prevalencerate and the incidence rate of influenza for a 1-month period of time. Therewere 1,000 students who reported flu-like symptoms during 1 month in apopulation of 5,000 students at the local community college, and during thesame month, 500 individuals developed influenza. What is the prevalencerate and incidence rate?
Discussion 7: Case StudyChapter 6Structure and Economics of Community Health ServicesMany factors and events have influenced the current structure, function, andfinancing of community health services. Understanding this background gives thecommunity health nurse a stronger base for planning for the health of thepopulation. A group of student nurses have been requested to present a 1 hour inservice to the local health department on the structure and economics ofcommunity health services as part of the community health nursing courserequirements. The presentation has to include information about a variety of topics.1. What are the key historical events and philosophical developments that haveled to today’s health services delivery systems?2. What are the differences between the functions of public versus privatesector health care agencies?3. What are the three core functions of public health as they apply to healthservice delivery?4. There are several trends and issues that have influenced community healthcare financing and delivery that are important in understanding health careeconomics and helping to improve community health. What are some ofthese trends and issues?5. In what important ways has the changing nature of health care financingadversely affected community health nursing and its practice?
Discussion 8: Case StudyChapter 16Global Public Health Nursing: Population Health Around theGlobeCommunity health nurses work with populations that vary from country to country,and to serve them appropriately requires an understanding of the ways in which thecontext in which they are located interacts with their health status and healthhistories. Student nurses are spending a month in Africa reviewing global healthand international community health nursing.1. The student nurses are required to examine the population in Africa to assessthe kinds of health conditions the population experiences. What is thecontext and framework for delivering community-based nursing within thecontext of international community health nursing?2. The student nurses are examining the population to assess the kinds ofhealth conditions the African population experience. The internationalcommunity health nurses suggest using the three eras and the three P’s ashelpful guides in this assessment. What are the three eras and the three P’sthat the student nurses need to consider?3. What major international, national, regional, and local organizationalstructures and organizations affect the ways in which community healthnursing is practiced?
Discussion 9: Case StudyChapter 23Adult Women and MenThe school nurse is preparing for a week long community health nurse rotation. Thepreparation includes reviewing and preparing a brief summary about commonissues affecting adult women and men. The community health nurse is going to askthe student key questions to ensure that proper preparation for the rotation hasbeen completed.1. The 20th century saw a shift in the leading causes of death fromcommunicable diseases to noncommunicable diseases. Currently, what arethe five leading causes of death in adults?2. Chronic illness is an issue of increasing concern for both men and women aslife expectancies increase. What are the three levels of prevention andactivities that community health nurses should consider in order to promotehealth across the adult women and men life span?3. The student nurse visits a woman’s home with the community health nurse.What are some important facts that the community health nurse and studentnurse can share with this woman to help raise awareness regarding heartdisease?4. The community health nurse has to do a short program in the local seniorcenter on mortality from unintentional injuries in the United States. Thestudent nurse shares some key facts about mortality from unintentionalinjuries in the United States based on age. What is the top unintentionalinjuries mortality among adult groups?
Discussion 10: Answers the following questions: How do you feel when you look at the photos in this lesson? What are some of the first thoughts that come to your mind? LOOK AT ATTACHED FILE.
Discussion 11: Answer the following questions: What is a Change Agent? How do you envision yourself as an Agent of Change? Before you answer the question above, consider the various roles we have already studied, the population that you served, your area of expertise in your practice, and your own unique talents.419402an hour agoDiscussion 12: Case Study Chapter 13 Policy Making and Community Health Advocacy It is very important that community health nurses provide not only input to policy circles through advocacy but also leadership at decision-making tables. The community health nurse is reviewing an online in-service program on the importance of this role in providing an essential influence and unique perspective in health care. 1. Seasoned advocates have developed skills in influencing policy decisions. Some individuals use the “ten commandments of lobbying.” What are the basic ideas that are inherent to advocates? 2. The community health nurse needs to know something about the forces shaping health policy and the policy process in order to be in a better position to influence policy outcomes. What are the three components of Kingdon’s framework for policy analysis?
Discussion 13: Case Study Chapter 5 Transcultural Nursing in the Community Community health clients belong to a variety of cultural groups. To gain acceptance, nurses must strive to introduce improved health practices that are presented in a manner consistent with clients’ cultural values. The student nurse is going to visit two different homes with the community health nurse with different cultural beliefs. 1. In preparation for the student nurse’s visits to two different homes, what five transcultural principles will assist in guiding community health nursing practice in these settings? 2. During the first visit, the student nurse has to conduct a cultural assessment by questioning the patient and observing the family dynamics. The community health nurse has requested that the student nurse assess for appropriate information in six major areas. What six major areas should the student nurse consider? 3. After the conclusion of the first visit, the community health nurse cautions the student nurse to be consciously aware of any ethnocentrism attitudes toward other cultures and the importance of cultural diversity. What is ethnocentrism and why is it so important to be conscious of cultural diversity?
Discussion 14: Case Study Chapter 9 Environmental Health and Safety Nurses are charged to incorporate knowledge of the environment into their nursing practice. Nurses are essential to improve environmental health through nursing education, research, and practice. A public health nurse incorporates an “upstream” focus in the community health position working with the community population. The community health nurse must consider the precautionary principle in the upstream focus. The nurse has to consider how the core functions of public health will be applied. 1. What strategic actions does the community health nurse need to consider as part of the upstream framework? 2. The community health nurse is using the precautionary principle in the upstream framework in the community. What is the precautionary principle and how is it applied to public health and the core functions? 3. The core functions of public health can be applied to public health nursing. What are the core functions of public health?
Discussion 15: Case Study Chapter 28 Working with the Homeless Sally Anne, aged 19, brought two children into the emergency room. The 6-month-old boy’s complaints are a cold with mild fever, fatigue, vomiting with dry coughing spells, decreased intake of cola (2 ounces every 3 hours—her version of clear liquids), one scraped diaper per 12 hours— the diaper is not soaked so Mom recycles it after scrapping off the solids. The child’s cry is weak, red eyes, sneezing moves thick mucus, prolonged cough, high-pitched noise during intake. The child’s condition did not improve over the last 24 hours. The family of three lives in the family sedan parked behind a service station due to Mom’s fear of lack of shelter safety. Turk, the 3-year-old, sports bruises on arms and legs, and a knot on his forehead. He appears semiconscious (responds to light pain), coughs when disturbed, refuses fluids and food, and pulls away from touch. Mother states that he has been sick for more than a week, but she is concerned that he has not been as fussy the last 24 hours. His skin tents when pinched. Sally Anne believes he lost weight but has not used a scale. Turk does not look adults in the eye or follow a finger point. He moans but has not communicated with words. He appears to fantasize, and finger plays violently. His fingers seem to attack each other. He does not seem to listen nor does he respond to questions. Both children are wearing dirty clothing. Mom is exhausted and asks for help with formula and diapers. Treatment: Both children kept overnight for assessment in a room with a bathroom and couch. Mother permitted to bath and wash children’s clothing after their baths. Cooling mist tent ordered. Children placed next to each other for convenience and for precautions. Social worker involved for discharge planning. The boys are placed on IVs for hydration and given clear fluids for drinking. Antibiotics are placed in the IV. 1. What information is needed for a complete assessment? 2. Will this family be worse off when released from the hospital? What community resources for homeless families could be activated in the small town? What prevents the family from falling through economic cracks that will prevent developmental assessments and treatments?
Discussion 16: Case Study Chapter 29 Issues with Rural, Migrant, and Urban Health Care Marty, a 75-year-old male, with a history of myocardial infarction called home complaining of heartburn and running out of antacids. When his daughter-in-law reminded him to maintain his rest and diet times, Marty grew angry. “Knock it off. I am doing fine despite what the doctor said. I will care for the diabetes after the harvest and I will come home as soon as I can.” Driving his combine formation with other workers for a night harvest, Marty paused at 9:45 PM for a break while the rest of the combine formation continued moving forward. Marty’s 6-year-old grandson rode in the combine with him to experience his first night harvest. No further communication was received from Marty’s combine. The boy’s mother called again at 10:00 PM with no answer. Used to “farm time” and dead space for the cell phones, she was not overly worried but was concerned about her son being out so late at night. The mother called her spouse who drove another combine in a different field to find out why the boy was not yet home. The father dispatched a truck to find Marty while the combines continued harvesting and gleaning. The truck driver found the missing combine on its side in a gully with the lights shining upward. A satellite phone was used to notify the Northern Air Ambulance and the local 911 of GPS coordinates. The volunteer flight and paramedic teams were dispatched. The Italian-made Agusta Power-109 helicopter used instruments to fly over two counties of hilly terrain. The single pilot employed night vision goggles to study the instrument panel and the radio to keep the pilot informed of ground rescue operations and hospital preparations. The flight nurses double checked the laryngoscopes, blood supplies, and jump kits while maintaining contact with the first scene arrivals. NUR4636 – Community Health Nursing Page 2 of 2 When the paramedic vehicle arrived, an employee truck was seen driving away from the combine. Marty was unconscious with a weak, irregular pulse of 100, BP of 65/48, and respirations of 26. A bruise over the right mastoid is noticed. The grandson is conscious and crying, splinted for a broken leg. His pulse is 120, BP 138/118, and respirations of 24. Purple circles are seen around his eyes. The 6- year-old complains of a headache and calls for his mother. 1. How will the nurse gather needed information to effect a successful rescue? 2. What travel and emergency transport resources are available? 3. What rural barriers to diagnosis, treatment, and follow-up resources exist? 4. What roles do rural nursing theory principles play in Marty’s health behaviors? 5. The nearest critical access hospital does not have a trauma level due to the lack of a 24-hour staff with trauma training. What types of trauma support do patient needs indicate?
Discussion 17: Case Study Chapter 11 Health Promotion: Achieving Change Through Education The community health nurse is preparing a smoking cessation program to be presented at the local high school for individuals who are thinking about quitting smoking. The community health nurse is identifying appropriate education activities that include the three domains of learning and the three stages of change. 1. The community health nurse has to consider the three stages of change in considering individual reasons to stop smoking. What are the three stages of change? 2. Planned or managed change is a purposeful, designed effort to effect improvement such as smoking cessation with the help of a change agent who is the community health nurse. What are the eight steps of planned change that the community health nurse needs to consider? 3. The community health nurse understands that encompassing strategies are the critical change strategies to consider in planning the health education program. What are the three major change strategies that must be considered by the community health nurse? 4. The community health nurse understands that the nature of learning contributes to the effectiveness of teaching on smoking cessation. The nurse needs to include the three domains of learning in the presentation. What are the three learning domains that must be considered in planning the education program?
Discussion 18: Case Study Chapter 17 Being Prepared: Impact of Disaster, Terrorism, and War Many opportunities are available for both student nurses and experienced community health nurses to become involved in emergency preparedness and response efforts. A disaster is any event that causes a level of destruction that exceeds the abilities of the affected community to respond without assistance. Disasters may be caused by natural or man-made/technologic events and may be classified as multiple-casualty incidents or mass-casualty incidents. Student nurses are developing a plan on how to approach the upcoming community-wide disaster drill. 1. What characteristics of disasters, including causation, number of casualties, scope, and intensity, should the student nurses consider? 2. What factors contribute to a community’s potential for experiencing a disaster? 3. What are the four phases of disaster management that must be included in the student nurses planning for the drill? 4. Using the levels of prevention, what is the role of the community health nurse in relations to acts of chemical, biologic, or nuclear terrorism?
Discussion 19: Case Study Chapter 8 Communicable Disease Control Knowledge of communicable diseases is fundamental to the practice of community/public health nursing because these diseases typically spread through communities of people. The community health nurse has to complete an investigation about a Salmonella outbreak in the local community that occurred from food served at a local fast-food chain . 1. Prior to contacting the individuals in the community who are affected with Salmonella for an interview, what key items must be completed by the community health nurse in the process of investigating a reportable communicable disease? 2. What key things should be considered by the community health nurse during the interviews of those individuals with Salmonella? 3. There are three modes of transmission for communicable diseases. Provide a brief description of the three modes of transmission. Which mode of transmission is involved for the Salmonella communicable disease outbreak? 4. There are several strategies used for the three levels of prevention in communicable disease control. What types of prevention methods and activities are considered to prevent communicable disease, such as Salmonella, from occurring in a community?
Discussion 20: Case Study Chapter 27 Behavioral Health in the Community The principal escorted Audrey, aged 13, an overweight girl with long blonde braids into the rural middle school nurse’s office. “Ms. Schmitz will help you, Audrey.” The principal signaled for the girl to sit down and then handed Ms. Schmitz, RN, a note and left. The note bulleted three lines: “Disruptive, fighting, teacher requests a home visit.” Ms. Schmitz extended a wet facecloth while assessing Audrey’s appearance. Audrey wiggled on the wooden chair wearing torn and too small clothing, tennis shoes with holes, and a full backpack. “Place this on your eyes, and see if it helps.” The crying child’s tongue poked out the right side of her mouth and she swallowed several times as she reached for the cloth. “Are you hurt?” asked the nurse. Audrey shook her head. “I have a sore throat though.” She shrugged her shoulders. “I wish I were dead. I could jab a pencil in my eye and bleed to death. That would fix them.” “You sound pretty upset. Tell me what happened.” “Brian made fun of my tics. I can’t help it. I am so tired of people laughing at me, my clothes and my mother. I hit him with a book because he wouldn’t stop. I bet he never thought I would hit him. I am not a bully, Brian is.” A fresh bout of sobbing doubled the girl in half. The nurse read Audrey’s health record. Learning disabilities, ADHD, Tourette’s disorder, prenatal drug exposure, R. 20/80 and L. 20/100 vision, a normal scoliosis screening, and free lunch eligibility. The nurse searched for a telephone number. “I need to call your mother.” The school secretary said, “There is no phone. I can give you the case worker’s contact.” “Momma is sick,” said Audrey and swallowed. “She won’t answer the door”. 1. What will be included in the school nurse’s assessment plan? 2. What resources should be explored?
Discussion 21: Case Study Chapter 20 Violence Affecting Families Crisis is a temporary state of severe disequilibrium for persons who face a threatening situation. The community health nurse has been requested to follow up on domestic violence cases as part of the workload. The student nurse is accompanying the community health nurse on the visits. The community health nurse is assessing the student nurse’s current understanding of violence affecting families by asking some theoretical questions concerning this critical issue. 1. The student nurse shares with the community health nurse that a crisis is a state that individuals can neither avoid nor solve with their usual coping abilities and occurs when some force disrupts normal functioning, thereby causing a loss of balance or normalcy in life. Crises create tension; subsequently, efforts are made to solve the problem and reduce the tension. The community health nurse asks the student nurse to identify and describe the two main types of crisis. What is a brief description of the two types of crisis? 2. The community health nurse has to follow up on an abuse case involving a child and adolescent. The community health nurse asks the student nurse what are the ages that child abuse occurs and how is shaken baby syndrome or Munchausen syndrome diagnosed? 3. Community health nurses use three levels of prevention when working with families. What type of focus is involved in the three levels of prevention? 4. People in crisis need and often seek help. Crisis intervention builds on these two phenomena to achieve its primary goal—reestablishment of equilibrium. What are the two major methods with a brief description of crisis intervention?